### Theory:

Coordinates
The numbers on a coordinate grid are used to locate points. It is represented as ordered pairs written in parentheses (x-coordinate, y-coordinate). The origin is located at ($$0$$,$$0$$).
Example:

The location of ($$3$$,$$5$$) is shown on the coordinate grid below. The $$x-coordinate$$ is $$3$$. The $$y-coordinate$$ is $$5$$. To locate ($$3$$,$$5$$), move $$3$$ units to the right on the $$x-axis$$ and $$5$$ units up on the $$y-axis$$.
Latitude and longitude
• Latitude is a geographical coordinate that specifies north or south position on the earth's surface.
• Longitude is a geographical coordinate which specifies the east or west position on the earth's surface.
• It is similar coordinates, but instead of using $$X$$ and $$Y$$ axes to point the location we use directions.
Important!
Latitude and longitude are represented in degrees-minutes-seconds (DMS). For degrees-minutes-seconds, minutes range from $$0$$ to $$60$$ and seconds range from $$0$$ to $$3600$$.