Theory:

Coordinates
The numbers on a coordinate grid are used to locate points. It is represented as ordered pairs written in parentheses (x-coordinate, y-coordinate). The origin is located at (\(0\),\(0\)).
Example:
6.png
 
The location of (\(3\),\(5\)) is shown on the coordinate grid below. The \(x-coordinate\) is \(3\). The \(y-coordinate\) is \(5\). To locate (\(3\),\(5\)), move \(3\) units to the right on the \(x-axis\) and \(5\) units up on the \(y-axis\).
Latitude and longitude
  • Latitude is a geographical coordinate that specifies north or south position on the earth's surface.
  • Longitude is a geographical coordinate which specifies the east or west position on the earth's surface.
  • It is similar coordinates, but instead of using \(X\) and \(Y\) axes to point the location we use directions.
7_1.png
Important!
Latitude and longitude are represented in degrees-minutes-seconds (DMS). For degrees-minutes-seconds, minutes range from \(0\) to \(60\) and seconds range from \(0\) to \(3600\).