### Theory:

Important!
Quarter - $$15$$ minutes

Half - $$30$$ minutes
We read the time in two ways.
1. Using the word "past":
When the minute hand (long hand) is on the right side of the clock, from $$12$$ to $$6$$, we use the word "past" to read the time.

 Clock Time $$4\!:\!15$$ $$3\!:\!25$$ Reading time $$15$$ minutes past $$4$$ (or) Quarter past $$4$$ $$25$$ minutes past $$3$$

2. Using the word "to":
When the minute hand is on the left side of the clock, from $$6$$ to $$12$$, we use the word "to" to read the time.

 Clock Time $$5\!:\!45$$ $$7\!:\!55$$ Reading time $$15$$ minutes to $$6$$ (or) Quarter to $$6$$ $$5$$ minutes to $$8$$

Important!
The short hand denotes hour hand.

The long hand denotes minute hand.