What is reproduction?
Reproduction is the biological process through which organisms produce offspring that are genetically identical to themselves.
It is one of the fundamental characteristics of living organisms which help in the continuity of species.
Importance of reproduction:
Among the various life processes, reproduction is an important.
  1. Continuity of species: It is the process that maintains the continuity of species.
  2. Population organization: It is the process that maintains the population of young, adult and aged persons.
  3. Variations: The process of reproduction brings about variations in the organisms. These variations are essential for adaptations and evolution.
  4. Life: The existence of life on earth is due to the process of reproduction. The incapability of reproducing by the organisms of a particular species will lead to the extinction of that species.
Though reproduction is very important, an organism cannot be considered as living or non-living based on the reproduction. This is due to the prevalence of living organisms that do have the capability of reproducing. These organisms are known as sterile or unfertile organisms.
Types of reproduction in plants:
Based on the structural complexity, physiology and habitat of the organisms in general reproduction is of two types.
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Types of reproduction
  1. Asexual reproduction
  2. Sexual reproduction
1. Asexual reproduction: In this method, there will be no fusion of gametes. This mode of reproduction occurs through budding, fragmentation, vegetative propagation, and spore formation. Vegetative propagation is a type of asexual reproduction that occurs through the vegetative parts of the plant, such as roots, stems or buds.
  • By stem (runners) is seen in plants like jasmine,
  • By roots (tubers) in sweet potato,
  • By leaves (plantlets) in Bryophyllum.
Runners, tubers and leaf buds
2. Sexual reproduction: It is the process of development of new individuals through the formation and fusion of gametes. It is also known as amphimixis or amphigony.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants
The process of reproduction will be discussed later in detail in the upcoming chapters.