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In the previous classes, we learnt about the basics of electricity and the heating effects of electric current.
The most available source of energy is electricity. Electricity plays a significant role in our daily life. Many electrical appliances like an electric bulb, television, a stereo system, refrigerator, washing machine, computers, etc., work with the help of electricity. We cannot think about our lives without using electricity.
Electricity is one form of energy involving the flow of electrons.
We already know that all matter is formed by atoms, which has a nucleus at their centre.
The nucleus includes,
  • Protons - positively charged particles, and
  • Neutrons - uncharged particles
The nucleus of an atom is enclosed by negatively charged particles known as electrons.
Usually, the negative charge of an electron in an atom is equal to the positive charge of a proton, and the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons.
An atom may gain or lose an electron when the balancing force between protons and electrons is disturbed by an outside force.
Due to this, an atom may lose electrons which results in the free movement of electrons. It constitutes an electric current.
What could be the effects of electric current?
When current flows in a circuit, it shows various effects.
The main effects are,
  • Heating
  • Chemical, and
  • Magnetic effects
We will discuss the magnetic effects of electric current in the upcoming sessions.