In Class IX, we learned how solar radiation causes air movement and winds unevenly by heating the landmass and water bodies. The wind's kinetic energy can be put to good use. Windmills have used this energy to do mechanical work in the past. The rotatory motion of a windmill, for example, is used to lift water from a well in a water-lifting pump. Wind energy is now used to generate electricity as well.
A windmill is essentially a structure that looks like a large electric fan erected at a certain height on a rigid support. The rotatory motion of the windmill is used to turn the turbine of the electric generator, which generates electricity. A single windmill's output is insignificant, and it cannot be used for commercial purposes. As a result, wind energy farms consist of a large number of windmills erected over a large area. The energy output of each windmill in a farm is combined to generate electricity on a commercial scale.
Wind energy is a renewable energy source that is both environmentally friendly and efficient. Electricity production does not necessitate any recurring costs. Wind energy, on the other hand, has a number of drawbacks. To begin with, wind energy farms can only be built in areas where the wind blows for the majority of the year. To keep the turbine spinning at the required speed, the wind speed must be greater than \(15\) \(km/h\). Furthermore, some backup facilities (such as storage cells) should be available to meet energy needs when there is no wind. The construction of wind energy farms necessitates a large amount of land. The farm will require approximately \(2\) \(hectares\) of land to accommodate a \(1 MW\) generator. The cost of establishing the farm is quite high at first.
Furthermore, because the tower and blades are exposed to the whims of nature, such as rain, sun, storms, and cyclones, they require extensive maintenance.