Carbohydrate-rich foods:
Carbohydrates are the source of energy to our body. They are the main source of energy to our body. However, carbohydrates in excess amount can lead to diabetes, obesity and other health complications.
Carbohydrates are available in various food items such as rice, bananas, potatoes, pastas.
Protein-rich foods:
Proteins are needed by our body to give structure and support to our cells. Proteins are needed to make us more energetic. Usually, proteins are building blocks of body. Proteins are usually considered as "healthy foods". Hence people who are suffering from various health issues prefer taking more protein-rich food as a replacement for carbohydrates.
Some of the protein rich foods are Egg, almonds, cheese, broccolis, oats.
Food containing fat:
Fats are also energy providers to keep us healthy and active. But fat rich foods when taken in greater quantity will lead to a lot of health complications. There exists good fats and bad fats. Good fat include unsaturated fats which are polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids.
Monounsaturated fatty acids are present in foods such as nuts, peanut butter and almond butter, vegetable oils.
Bad fats include trans fats and saturated fats which are found in higher quantity in French fries, baked foods(cakes, pastries) and processed snacks. The diagram below gives a list of fats, both good and bad.
Vitamins are essential to make the body immune system to fight against the disease.There are various types of vitamins available in various foods such as vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K and group of vitamin B such as vitamin B1, B12, B2,etc...
Vitamin A:
Carrots, green leafy vegetables, papaya, mangoes are great sources of vitamin A. Vitamin A is vital for effective eyesight and to keep skin healthy.
Vitamin C:
Vitamin C is rich in citrus fruits such as oranges, gooseberries, strawberries and all kinds of berries. It is very important to develop our immune system and to keep your teeth strong and healthy.
Vitamin D:
It is very important for healthy bones. And, it is very helpful in the absorption of calcium and phosphorous to maintain bones strong.
Sunlight is the major source of vitamin D. Apart from that mushrooms, yogurts are rich in vitamin D.
Vitamin E and K:
Vitamin E helps in reducing heart diseases, improving the immune system and also is good for skin. Sunflower seeds, peanut butter, almonds are rich in vitamin E.
Spinach, mustard seeds, fish, cereals are rich in vitamin K and is very important to avoid blood clotting and is also helpful in metabolism.
Vitamin B:
Group of vitamins such as vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, vitamin B5, vitamin B6, vitamin B9, vitamin B12, etc.... These are collectively called as complex vitamins. All these vitamins are highly essential for good skin, and to avoid nervous problems, fatigue and to avoid lack of red blood cells.
Eggs, legumes (beans and lentils) and dairy products are highly vitamin B rich foods. 
Some important minerals needed for growth and healthy life are calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride , iron, zinc, iodine, selenium and copper.
All these are available in various food items such as Seafood (phosphorous), bananas ( potassium) , green leafy vegetables ( magnesium), salt (iodine, sodium) and dark chocolates (copper).
A balanced diet:
A food plan that consists of a combination of all kinds of  vitamins mentioned-above, proteins, carbohydrates, proteins, minerals  and fats in order to make a person healthy and so that one gets all the benefits and essential nutrients from the combination can be called as a balanced diet.
Food pyramid: copyrighted image
Minerals rich foods: copyrighted image
Vitamin B rich foods: copyrighted image
Vitamin  E rich foods: copyrighted image
Vitamin D rich foods: copyrighted image
Vitamin C rich foods: copyrighted image
Vitamin A rich foods: copyrighted image
Fat: copyrighted image
Protein rich food: copyrighted image
Carbohydrate rich food: copyrighted image