Components of a meal:
People from different states have different kind of foods. That is, if you look at the dishes of a North- Indian, for lunch, they will have rotis, dal and butter. But, in Southern-India most of the states will have rice, sambhar and bhindis, brinjals as essential part of their cuisine. You can make a list of these menus.  
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Reason for combination of  food:
All these dishes have some ingredients which makes us healthy and energetic to do work. Every ingredient that we consume on a daily basis has carbohydrates, proteins, fat, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibres and water. All these are collectively called, as nutrients. Of these, the major nutrients are carbohydrates, proteins, fat, vitamins and minerals. In order to be healthy one must consume a variety of ingredients. Hence, we have different dishes in our meal.
Different types of nutrients:
  • Vitamins
  • Proteins
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Minerals
All the above nutrients are highly essential to make a person healthy and make a meal balanced. We must know which food has what nutrients, in order to do keep ourselves healthy.
Below is a simple pie chart decorated with the corresponding food item. We do not require all the nutrients in the same quantity. The chart below explains quantitatively how much one should consider the type of nutrients in their food.  The maximum part of the pie diagram is filled with carbohydrate and proteins. The position of fat is limited with few food items. That is because, carbohydrates are rich in starch and give quick energy. Fats do have lot of energy but in concentrated form. Fat takes a lot of time to get digested. So the amount of the fat should be less while carbohydrates, which are easy to digest, should be more in the food that we consume.  
In addition, we should also consume protein-rich food like meat, milk and sprouts. Protein-rich food builds the body and protects it from diseases. Fruits which are rich in vitamins and minerals help body to function smoothly.
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Food items diagram:, free image from
South Indian meal: free image from cultural
North Indian meal:, free image from