You have learnt earlier that plants can prepare their own food by the process of photosynthesis with the help of sunlight. But animals cannot. The mode of nutrition in animals is called holozoic nutrition.
It is the form of nutrition, in which the animals will consume food in the form of solid.
Animal nutrition covers three major aspects,
- nutrient requirement
- mode of intake of food
- how the food is utilized inside the body.
There are various types of nutrients available in food such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats and vitamins. These are the components of food that are necessary to provide energy for the organism to survive. Animals consume the food and obtain the nutrients in different ways.
Mode of intake of food:
Nutrition in animals is a complex process involving ingestion, digestion, absorption and assimilation.
Food is taken into the body through the mouth. The process of taking food into the body is called ingestion.
The mode of ingestion in different organisms:
|Animal||Mode of feeding|
|Snakes||swallow their food|
|Honey bees||suck nectar from plants|
|dog||chew their food using mouth|
|Eagle||capture their food using beaks|
|infants of human||chewing using mouth|
Ingestion in human:
We chew the food with the teeth and break it down mechanically into small pieces. Each tooth is rooted in separate pockets in the gums. There are four different types of teeth, molar, premolar, canine and incisor.
It is also helpful in the process of ingestion. The position of some of taste buds of tongue are given below:
Tongue is a muscular organ which is tied to mouth at one end and is free at the other end. Tongue has many taste buds which helps in identifying the taste of the food.