Theory:

Each type of soil has distinct property that depends on its particle size, composition, particle structure, pores, etc. In the subsequent topics, we are going to study about the different properties of soil.
  1. Percolation rate of soil
  2. Retention of Moisture in soil
  3. Water Absorption capacity of soil
  4. Texture of soil
  5. Colour of soil
  6. pH of soil
Properties of soil
Comparison of different types of soil:
 
Sandy soil
Clayey soil
Loamy soil
It is made up of sand.     
It is made up of clay.
It is made up of an equal amount of sand and silt and a lesser amount of clay.
Particles are bigger in size.
Particles are smaller in size.
Particles are both larger and smaller in size.
Soil is dry.
Soil is wet.
Soil is wet.
Well aerated.
Less aerated.
Well aerated.
Low water-holding capacity.
High water holding capacity.
Moderate water holding capacity.
Soil is light.
Soil is hard.
Can be hard or light.
 
Percolation rate of water in soil
Percolation is the term used in filters to explain the movement of liquid through it. Water percolation in the soil is the process of water movement through the soil. Percolation rate of water in the soil is the speed at which the water moves through the soil. Percolation rate of water in soil varies according to the type of soil.
 
Experiment:
  
Screenshot 2021-01-03 141550.jpg
 
Take a pipe of diameter 20 cm and insert the pipe into the soil surface for 2cm depth. Take a timer and also take water of 200 ml in a beaker. Start the timer and start to pour the water into the pipe. Stop the timer until the water percolates into the soil completely and note down the time.
Percolation rate of water in the soil can be calculated using the below formula.

\(\text{Percolation rate} (mL/min) = \frac{\text{amount of water} (mL)}{\text{percolation time} (min)}\)

Do the same experiment in different soil types and calculate the percolation rate for them.
For example,
If 200 ml of water poured inside the pipe and time measured for the water percolation is 2 mins, then the percolation rate is 100 ml/min.
Percolation rate \((ml/min)\)\(= 200/2= 100 ml/min\).