As discussed in the previous topics, soil was formed from the rocks by the process of weathering. Different types of soils were formed according to the nature of rock,  from which it is weathered.
Depending upon the proportion and size of the particles, soil is classified into four types. 

Sandy soil:
Sandy soil contains mainly sand particles. It has larger particles with larger spaces between them, and they are filled with air. So it is called as well-aerated soils. Due to the large spaces, water can easily penetrate through the particles of sand. So, it cannot hold water. Hence, sandy soils are light, well-aerated and dry. Since it is aerated, can be plough it quickly, and it cannot retain moisture. So it is not suitable for plants proper growth. Since it is light, can be blown it away quickly. Sandy soils do not possess nutrients; thus, it is less fertile and does not support plants' diverse growth. This soil is not sticky, and therefore, these cannot be used to make pots, bricks toys and statues.
sand-276170_1280.jpg Screenshot 2021-01-03 134347.jpg

Clayey soil:
Clayey soil contains fine particles. It has little air spaces between them. Due to the less space between the particles, clayey soils are not well-aerated like sandy soils. The small gaps between the particles in the clayey soil allow the absorption of water quickly. Clayey soil is rich in minerals. Many of which are used by the plants. Clayey soil is very dense, more porous and less permeable. As a result, clayey soil gets easily waterlogged during the rainy season, reducing air availability between the soil particles, making the soil infertile.
Clayey soil is very sticky, which can be used to make pots, bricks, toys, statues, etc. It is heavier than sandy soil and also comparatively, clayey soil is more fertile than sandy soil. Clayey soils are heavy because of greater water holding capacity than sandy soils; These are wet and not well aerated. Paddy and wheat grow well in the clayey soil.
 drought-1149686_1280.jpg potters-wheel-58557_1280.jpg Screenshot 2021-01-03 134440.jpg

Loamy soil:
Loamy soil is a mixture of sand, clay and another type of soil particle known as silt. The soil is well aerated, and it has a lot of organic matter (humus), which supports a wide variety of soil organisms that keep the soil fertile. Therefore, this type of soil is more suitable for growing plants. It has the right water holding capacity and thus supports the growth of plants. They are also called Agricultural Soils because of their fertility and proper texture. It is a smooth, partially gritty and sticky soil. It is used to grow vegetables, onion, garlic, pulses, wheat and maize. If loamy soil contains more sand, then the soil is light, and if it has more clay, then the soil is heavy. Loamy soil are the "friendliest" soils to cultivate.
shutterstock_1285685884.jpg Screenshot 2021-01-03 134407.jpg

Silt soil:
Silt particles are smaller than sandy soil but much larger than the clayey soils. It can hold moisture for a longer time, and silty soil does not get waterlogged quickly. They are usually located near the water bodies like river banks and lakes. Silty soil also has the right amount of mineral nutrients and some amount of humus. Because of that, it is suitable for agriculture. They are frequently mixed with other types of soil and helps to improve the fertility of the soil. It is used to grow vegetables, fruit-bearing trees and pulses.
This picture shows the river bed contains silty soil.
  • When the soil contains many big particles,  the soil is called sandy soil.
  • When the soil contains many small particles, the soil is called clayey soil.
  • When the soil contains a mixture of sand, clay, and silt, it is called loamy soil.
  • When the rainwater or surface water gets collected in a place, it is called waterlogging. Clayey soil can absorb water and retain a lot. Therefore water logging occurs in these type of soil. The soil is always waterlogged and cannot hold air for the plants root to breathe. So plants cannot grow well in waterlogged soil.