Theory:

Our Father of nation, Mahatma Gandhi once famously told that “The world has enough for everyone's need, but not enough for everyone's greed.”
 
We are in the verge of exploiting every single resource available on the earth. Soil is not an exception. In this topic, we will see how soil resources are depleted and the necessary actions needed to prevent it.
Soil erosion
Removal of the soil's upper fertile layer (topsoil) by strong wind and water flow is known as soil erosion. It takes away the soil's fertile layer and making the soil infertile and unsuitable for plant growth. Soil erosion is happening because the soil becomes loose due to the absence of plants. So it can be moved by natural agents.
 
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Causes of Soil Erosion:
Cutting the large scale of forest trees and plants are the significant causes of soil erosion. This process of cutting down of trees and plants is called as deforestation. Soil erosion is more severe in little or no surface vegetation such as desert or barren land. Over-grazing of grasslands is also a reason for soil erosion.
 
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Prevention of Soil Erosion:
Soil erosion can be prevented by the afforestation (large scale growing of forest trees in place of cut down trees). 
Should plant new trees in the deforested areas. And this tree cover will prevent soil erosion of the forest land. 
Soil pollution
Soil pollution is the existence of unwanted substances in the soil that can be harmful for all living beings.
 
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Causes of soil pollution:
  • Solid waste such as human excreta, fruits and vegetable peels, plastics, metal objects, etc., and excessive use of chemicals such as fertilizers,
  • Pesticides and insecticides, and acid rain are the main contributors of soil pollution.
  • Plastics and polythene bags are ruining the soil fertility. So they must be disposed of properly. So it is necessary to minimize the utilization of plastics.
  • Waste products which comes from industries and, homes pollute the soil.
Prevention of soil pollution:
  • Usage of Compost must be encouraged instead of chemical fertilizers, as compost improves soil quality, loosens the soil, and helps air and water move more freely.
  • Farmers should be encouraged to use biofertilizers and biopesticides.
  • Recycling and reusing waste helps in decreasing soil pollution.
  • Harmful soil pollutants from industries (hydrocarbons, solvents, and heavy metals) must be treated chemically and convert them into harmless materials before they are disposed of. 
Important!
Do you know why the government takes action against the use of plastic polythene bags?
 
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Polyethene bags and plastics pollute the soil. They were also harmful to the organisms that are living in the soil. That is why there is a demand to ban the polythene bags and plastics.
 
Why the pesticides and chemicals usage should be minimized?
Countless number of waste products, chemicals and pesticides pollute the soil. Should minimize the use of pesticides to increase the fertility of the earth.