Theory:

Climate has an effect on the living organisms that inhabit the particular area.
The presence of certain features in a habitat which enables an animal or a plant to live in a particular surrounding is called adaptation.
The animals are adapted to survive in the habitat and the conditions in which they reside. Adaptation is a trait of the organism which is favoured by evolution and natural selection.
 
Animals that live in extremes of climate - hot or cold possess special features to protect from the extreme climates. The adaptations present in animals help it to adapt or accustom to the habitat. The adaptations present in the animals that belong to polar region as well as the tropical rainforest are discussed in brief.
Polar regions
The polar regions means the regions situated near the north pole and the south pole. The countries present in the polar regions includes Canada, Greenland, Norway, Iceland, Sweden, Finland, Alaska in USA and Siberian region of Russia.
 
The polar regions display extreme cold climates which are covered with snow for most parts of the year. Sun does not set for six months, and in another six months the sun does not rise.
 
Temperature may go as low as -37°C in the winters.
 
Adaptations in Polar bear
  • White fur blends with the snow, and thus escapes from predators. It is used also for catching prey.
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  • Two thick layers of fur that protect from the extreme cold. Beneath the fur there is fat coat which acts as an insulator from the extreme cold.
  •  Good swimmers which have wide, and large paws that aids in swimming. Curved, and sharp claws help the bear to walk on the snow easily.
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  • During swimming the nostrils can remain closed and can remain under water for long durations.
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  • Strong sense of smell so it can easily catch the prey. Possess small ears so as to keep minimum body surface area to reduce the heat loss from the body.