Theory:

Climate
The average weather pattern which is observed and taken over a long time, is called the climate of a particular place.
Different places in the world have different types of climate.
 
If a place has consistently high temperature, then the climate of that place is high, while if it also has heavy rainfall mostly, then the climate of the place is hot and wet.
 
The annual record of the average temperature and the rainfall at a particular place is called climate chart.
Factors that determine the climate
The factors that affect the climate includes
  • Latitude or the distance from the equator
  • Altitude or the height above the sea level
  • Distance from the sea
  • Humidity and rainfall
  • Topography
Latitude
 
When a place is closer to equator the place is hotter when compared to the areas closer to the poles.
Example:
Polar regions like Antarctica are very much cooler than the regions near equator.
Altitude
 
Climate varies according to the altitude of the place. Higher altitudes are cooler than the plains.
Example:
Higher altitudes like Himalayas have cooler climate than Chennai or Bangalore.
Distance from the sea
 
Climate of a place varies in accordance to the closeness to the sea.
Example:
The places nearby the sea, have moderate temperature - which is not too hot or too cold (like Mumbai, Chennai). While the places that are far from the sea have very hot summer or too cold winter (like Delhi).
Humidity and rainfall
 
Humidity and rainfall also determines the climate of a place.
Example:
Kolkata, Cherrapunji and Kerala have high humidity, while Rajasthan, Hyderabad and Haryana have low humidity.
  
Climates observed in India
  
In India the climate changes from region to region which can be described as
  1. The northern region of the Himalayas like the Jammu and Kashmir has cold and moderately wet climate.
  2. The southern region like the Kerala has hot and wet climate.
  3. The plains like the Uttar Pradesh has a moderate hot and wet climate.
  4. The western region like the Rajasthan has hot and dry climate which is typical desert
    climate.
  5. The north-eastern part of India like Assam receives rain for a major part of the year, and thus is wet.