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Theory:

We know how petroleum is formed; now, we will see its refining process, byproducts, and uses.
Petroleum
The word petra means rock, and oleum means oil. Petroleum is also called as crude oil, mineral oil, and rock oil. Due to the widespread commercial use of petroleum, it is also called black gold. Black gold is also termed as petrochemicals as many useful products are obtained from petroleum.
 
Properties:
  • It is yellowish black in colour.
  • It is a dark viscous, oily liquid with an unpleasant odour.
  • It is a mixture of various constituents such as paraffin wax, petroleum gas, diesel, lubricating oil, petrol, etc.
Refining process: 
 
The constituents are separated by fractional distillation as each of them has a different range of boiling points. The process of separation of these mixtures present in crude oil is called petroleum refining.
 
Constituents of petroleum and its uses:
 
Constituents
Uses
Images
LPG(Liquefied petroleum gas)
  • It is a commonly used fuel in homes and industries.
  • The main constituent is butane.
  • The advantages of LPG is that no residue is left behind, no smoke is produced, no harmful gas is released on burning, has high calorific value, easy to handle and convenient for storage.
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Petrol
  • It is brownish red and pale yellow when undyed.
  • It is less viscous.
  • Used as a motor fuels.
  • Used as a aviation fuels. 
  • Used as a solvent for dry cleaning.
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Kerosene
  • It is blue in colour.
  • Fuels for jet aircraft, stoves and lamps.
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Diesel
  • It is yellowish-green in colour.
  • It is more viscous compared to petrol.
  • Fuels for heavy vehicles and electric generators.
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Lubricating oil
  • Used as a lubricant to reduce friction.
  • Reduces corrosion of metals when applied.
  • Helps in reducing the heat produced due to friction.
 
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Bitumen
  • It is dark brown or brown in colour.
  • Used in damp proofing.
  • It is used in the manufacturing of paints and metaling roads.
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Calorific Value: The amount of heat produced per unit volume of the substance during the process of combustion.