Geetha and Salim were discussing the importance of food. According to Geetha, food is vital for all living organisms, as it provides carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Food supplies the energy required for body growth, development, and repair. On the other hand, Salim was concerned about how would be fed for India's growing population.
By \(2050\), India's population is expected to exceed \(1.7\) \(billion\) people. At that time, India's current rate of food production will only be able to cover \(59 \%\) of the country's food demand. By \(2050\), how will India feed \(1.7 billion\) people?
Due to the rapid increase in population, an increase in food production is a necessity. Plants and animals provide food for living organisms but must enhance their efficiency to fulfil the demands of the growing population in India. Plant breeding and animal husbandry are thus used to enhance food production.
Plant breeding is the art of developing economically important plants with superior quality.
Animal husbandry involves the breeding of animals.
Animal husbandry deals with feeding, breeding, housing and health care of livestock for obtaining maximum benefits.
Animal in the term "animal husbandry" means only the domesticated animals reared for economic or recreation purposes, such as cattle, sheep, buffalo, goat, pig, poultry farming, fisheries, etc. Fisheries include rearing, catching, and selling fish, molluscs and crustaceans. Bees and silkworms have been used for honey and silk production. Milk, eggs, honey, meat, wool etc., have all been produced by livestock.
Animal husbandry aims to improve animal genotypes to make them more beneficial to human welfare. It is focusing on animal domestication and propagation under controlled conditions to improve food supply and quality.
Another milestone was the emergence of biotechnology as a unique branch of modern biology, which paved the way for the development of advanced healthcare products, diagnostic kits, and food production to improve the quality of humans.