Theory:

Let us now see the IUPAC rules for naming organic compounds:
  
Rule 1: 
 
Find the longest chain of carbon atoms to determine the parent name (root word).

Rule 2:
 
Start counting the carbon atoms in the parent chain at the closest end of the substituent or functional group. These are known as locant numbers.
 
If both a functional group and a substituent are present, the functional group takes precedence.
 
Rule 3:
 
In the case of alkenes and alkynes, find the double or triple bond and use its locant number followed by a dash and a primary suffix.
 
The carbon chain is numbered in such a way that multiple bonds have the lowest locant number possible.
 
Rule 4:
 
If the compound contains a functional group, find it and use the locant number followed by a dash and a secondary suffix to find it.

Rule 5:
 
When the primary and secondary suffixes are combined, the primary suffix's terminal 'e' is removed.
 
Rule 6:
 
Identify the substituent using a number followed by a dash and a prefix to specify its location and identity.
 
The above stated are the rules that must be followed while naming the organic compounds. In the next section, we will see some of the solved examples for naming organic compounds.