Register for free to see more content

Theory:

Georg Simon Ohm, a German physicist, conducted various experiments and formulated Ohm's law. The law describes the relationship between potential difference and current.
 
Ohm's law states that,
At a constant temperature, the steady current '\(I\)' flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference '\(V\)' between the two ends of the conductor.
Mathematically, it is written as
 
IαV
 
Hence,
 
IV=constant
 
(or)
 
I=(constant)V
The value of the proportionality constant found in the above equation is 1R.
 
Therefore,
 
I=1RVV=IR
 
Where \(V\) is the potential difference, \(I\) is the current flowing through a conductor, and \(R\) is the resistance of a material. The resistance is constant for a material (e.g., copper) at a given temperature.
 
The above equation can also be written as,
 
R=VI
 
In terms of units, the resistance \(R\) of a conductor is said to be \(1\ ohm\) with a potential difference of \(1\ volt\), causing the current of \(1\ ampere\) to flow through the conductor. Then,
 
Ohm=VoltAmpere
 
Graphical representation:
The graph between the potential difference (\(V\)) and the current (\(I\)) is a straight line for a conductor since \(V\) is proportional to \(I\).
 
ohm graph.png
The relation between potential difference and current