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Theory:

In order to use the electrical energy, the current has to be passed through various electrical components arranged systematically.
An electric circuit is a continuous closed path or loop along which current flows from the positive terminal to the negative terminal of the battery. It has a network of electrical components through which electrons flow.
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A circuit diagram
 
A circuit diagram is the schematic representation of an electric circuit. All the electrical devices in the circuit diagram are represented in symbols.
Components of an electric circuit:
A basic electric circuit consists of a cell or a battery, connecting wires, a bulb, and a switch.
  
Electric cell:
An 'electric cell' is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy, thus producing a small amount of electricity. A cell is a single unit.
 
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A cell
 
The two terminals of the electric cell connected to the bulb can form a simple electric circuit. Here, the bulb provides a complete path for current to flow between the two terminals of the electric cell.
 
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A simple electric circuit using a cell
 
Battery:
battery is a collection of two or more cells. It provides the potential difference needed for the charge to flow.
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A battery
 
The movement of electrons is always from the positive terminal to the negative terminal of the battery. A cell or a battery is the main source of electric current.
 
The symbol for cell and battery:
The positive terminal is represented by a longer line, and the negative terminal is represented by a shorter line.
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Schematic representation of cell and battery
  
Connecting wires:
The conducting wires connect the electrical components and act as a path for the current to flow. The wires can be seen when an electrical appliance is connected to a battery or a source of electric charge. The symbol for the wire is a single straight line.
 
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Conducting wires