Theory:

What is physical property?
A physical property is a property of matter that can be observed and measured without changing the sample's chemical identity.
Physical Properties of Copper:
 
(a). Copper is a reddish-brown metal. (You can see your kitchen utensils)
 
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Reddish-brown copper
 
(b). Copper has a high lustre (Shiny and bright appearance).
 
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Shiny copper vessels
 
(c). Copper has a high density of \(8.9\) (Aluminium density is \(2.7\)).
 
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High dense copper
  
(d). Copper has a high melting point (\(1356\)°C). (We cant melt copper in regular heating)
 
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Copper welding (melted copper) 
  
What is a chemical property?
A chemical property is a property of a substance that can be seen when it undergoes a chemical reaction.
Chemical Properties of Copper:
 
(i) Action of air and moisture:
  
Copper gets coated with a green layer of basic copper carbonate in the presence of \(CO_2\) and moisture.
\(2Cu\) + \(O2\) + \(CO_2\) + \(H_2O\) → \(CuCO_3\).\(Cu(OH)_2\)
(Copper)                                      (Copper carbonate)
  
(ii) Action of heat:
  
On heating at various temperatures in the presence of oxygen, copper forms two types of oxides, \(CuO\) and \(Cu_2O\).
 
2Cu + O2 below 1370K 2CuO
                                   (copper II oxide-black)
 
4Cu + O2below1370K2Cu2O
                                      (copper I oxide-red)
  
(iii) Action of acids:
  
(a). With dilute \(HCl\) and dilute \(H_2SO_4\):
  
In the presence of air, copper dissolves in dilute \(HCl\) and \(H_2SO_4\).
In the absence of air, dilute acids such as \(HCl\) and \(H_2SO_4\) have no action on copper.
 
\(2Cu\) + \(4HCl\) + \(O_2\)(air) → \((2CuCl_2\) + \(2H_2O\)
  
(b). With dilute \(HNO_3\):
  
Copper reacts with dilute \(HNO_3\) to produce nitric oxide gas.
 
\(3Cu\) + \(8HNO_3\) → \(3Cu(NO_3)_2\) + \(2NO\)↑ + \(4H_2O\)
  
(iv) Action of chlorine:
  
Chlorine reacts with copper to form copper(II) chloride.
 
\(Cu\) + \(Cl_2\) → \(CuCl_2\)
  
(v) Action of alkalis:
 
Alkalis do not attack copper.