### Theory:

Uses of Copper:

(a). Copper is widely used in producing electric cables and other electric appliances.

Copper in various electric appliances

(b). Copper is used to make utensils, containers, calorimeters, and coins.

Copper utensils

(c). Copper is used in the electroplating process.
Electroplating is similar to electrolysis. It is a method of plating one metal onto another by hydrolysis, generally used to prevent the corrosion or decorative purposes of the metal.
Electroplated copper vessel

(d). Copper is alloyed with gold and silver to make coins and jewellery.

Copper coins

Metallurgy of Iron:

Occurrence:

Iron is the $$2$$nd most abundant metal after aluminium. It can be found in nature as oxides, sulphides, and carbonates.

Iron symbol, atomic number and mass

The following are examples of iron ores:

 Ores of iron Formula Haematite $$Fe_2O_3$$ Magnetite $$Fe_3O_4$$ Iron pyrite $$FeS_2$$

Iron is extracted from Haematite ($$Fe_2O_3$$).
Hematite is a simple iron oxide compound with the formula $$Fe_2O_3$$ abundant in rocks and soils. It comes in various colours, ranging from black to steel or silver-grey, brown to reddish-brown, or red. It is mined as significant iron ore.
Haematite and magnetite are the most important iron ores in India. About $$79$$% of Haematite ore deposits are located in the Eastern Region (Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha & Uttar Pradesh).
The extraction of iron involves the following process:

(i). Concentration by Gravity Separation:

The powdered ore is washed with a stream of water. As a result, the lighter sand particles and other impurities are washed away, and the heavier ore particles settle down.

Iron ore industrial washing

(ii). Roasting and Calcination:
Roasting is the method of heating a sulfide ore to a high temperature in the presence of air.
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Calcination is the process of heating a solid chemical compound to high temperatures in the absence or with a limited supply of air or oxygen. It is used to remove impurities or volatile substances.
In a reverberatory furnace, the concentrated ore is strongly heated in a limited supply of air. As a result, moisture is removed, impurities such as sulphur, arsenic, and phosphorus oxidized.

Industrial roasting chamber