Theory:

Uses of Copper:
  
(a). Copper is widely used in producing electric cables and other electric appliances.
 
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Copper in various electric appliances
 
(b). Copper is used to make utensils, containers, calorimeters, and coins.
 
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Copper utensils
 
(c). Copper is used in the electroplating process.
Electroplating is similar to electrolysis. It is a method of plating one metal onto another by hydrolysis, generally used to prevent the corrosion or decorative purposes of the metal.
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Electroplated copper vessel
 
(d). Copper is alloyed with gold and silver to make coins and jewellery.
 
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Copper coins
  
Metallurgy of Iron:
  
Occurrence:
 
Iron is the \(2\)nd most abundant metal after aluminium. It can be found in nature as oxides, sulphides, and carbonates.
 
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Iron symbol, atomic number and mass
 
The following are examples of iron ores:
 
Ores of iron
Formula
Haematite\(Fe_2O_3\)
Magnetite\(Fe_3O_4\)
Iron pyrite\(FeS_2\)
 
Iron is extracted from Haematite (\(Fe_2O_3\)).
Hematite is a simple iron oxide compound with the formula \(Fe_2O_3\) abundant in rocks and soils. It comes in various colours, ranging from black to steel or silver-grey, brown to reddish-brown, or red. It is mined as significant iron ore.
Haematite and magnetite are the most important iron ores in India. About \(79\)% of Haematite ore deposits are located in the Eastern Region (Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha & Uttar Pradesh).
The extraction of iron involves the following process:
  
(i). Concentration by Gravity Separation:
  
The powdered ore is washed with a stream of water. As a result, the lighter sand particles and other impurities are washed away, and the heavier ore particles settle down.
 
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Iron ore industrial washing
 
(ii). Roasting and Calcination:
Roasting is the method of heating a sulfide ore to a high temperature in the presence of air.
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Calcination is the process of heating a solid chemical compound to high temperatures in the absence or with a limited supply of air or oxygen. It is used to remove impurities or volatile substances.
In a reverberatory furnace, the concentrated ore is strongly heated in a limited supply of air. As a result, moisture is removed, impurities such as sulphur, arsenic, and phosphorus oxidized.
 
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Industrial roasting chamber