Theory:

2. Light independent reactions (Dark reaction) (Biosynthethic phase):
Hill_reaction_4.png
Calvin cycle
  • These are the reactions that take place in the stroma and do not directly require light.
  • During this reaction, the ATP and \(NADPH_2\) produced in the light reactions reduce carbon dioxide into glucose.
  • It is also known as the Calvin cycle, as Melvin Calvin discovered it. And, it is known as dark reactions as it occurs in the absence of light.
portrait-of-melvin-calvin-taken-october-12-1964-morgue-1964-57-p-1-photographer-48dd44.jpg
Melvin Calvin
 
Melvin Calvin is an American biochemist who discovered the chemical pathway (Dark reactions) of photosynthesis. Hence, the cycle was named after his name Calvin cycle. For his discovery he was awarded with Nobel prize in the year 1961.
Factors affecting photosynthesis:
HEX codes (4).png
Artificial Photosynthesis:
rao.png
Reference:
https://nara.getarchive.net/media/portrait-of-melvin-calvin-taken-october-12-1964-morgue-1964-57-p-1-photographer-48dd44
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chintamani_Nagesa_Ramachandra_Rao_03650.JPG
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2f/Hill_reaction_4.png