Population explosion defined as the sudden and rapid rise in the size of population, especially human population.
It is a rapid increase in the population over a relatively short period of time. A rapid decline in the death rate, infant mortality rate (IMR), maternal mortality rate (MMR) and an increase in the number of persons in the reproductive age are the major reasons for population explosion.
Through the Reproductive and Child Health Care (RCH) programmes conducted by the government, the population growth rate could be brought down considerably. Realizing the danger of population expansion, the Indian government has implemented a number of steps to limit population growth, including the introduction of family planning.
In \(1952\), India was one of the first countries in the world to implement the launch of a nation wide family planning programme. Family planning is a way of living that couples choose willingly based on knowledge and responsible decisions in order to improve the health and welfare of their family and community.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has also emphasized the necessity of family planning as a global health policy for everyone.
In India, the inverted red triangle is a symbol of family planning for family welfare. It is prominently displayed in all hospitals, primary health clinics, and family welfare centres, where any assistance or advise on family planning is provided free of charge. The symbol is accompanied by the phrase "Small Family, Happy Family."
It is essential to ensure birth control to check on the rising population growth. The governments have come out with different programmes that encourage smaller families by means of various contraceptive methods.
Symbol of family planning:
Birth control or Contraception:
Birth control methods work on any one of the phenomena, including:
1. Preventing the sperm transport to the ovum.
2. Preventing ovulation.
3. Preventing the implantation of the early embryo in the uterus.
Contraception is one of the best birth control measures. There are different contraceptive methods used, which prevents unwanted pregnancy, and spreading of STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases). The devices used for contraception are called contraceptive devices.
Illustration of contraceptive methods
Contraceptive methods are of two types:
1. Natural method of contraception
2. Artificial means of contraception
How should an ideal contraceptive be?
- It should be user-friendly, easily available, effective and reversible.
- There should be no or least side-effects.
- It should not interfere with sexual drive, desire and sexual act.
Natural or traditional methods:
These methods works on the principle to avoid the chances of an ovum meeting with the sperms. The different methods include:
i. Periodic abstinence - It is a method where the couple avoid copulation or intercourse from days \(10\) to \(17\) of the menstrual cycle, i.e., when ovulation is expected.
ii. Coitus interruptus - In this method, the male withdraws his penis before the insemination of the semen into the female's vagina.
iii. Lactational amenorrhea - After parturition, there is no menstrual cycle and thus there is no ovulation in the females. This method id effective only up to a period of six months after the childbirth.