All living organisms (plants and animals) produce new individuals during their lifetime.
What is reproduction?
Reproduction is the biological process through which organisms produce offspring that are genetically identical to themselves.
The new individuals thus produced are copies of the parent organism.
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Reproduction in organisms
It is one of the fundamental characteristics of living organisms that help in the continuity of species.
Importance of reproduction:
Among the various life processes, reproduction is important.
  1. Continuity of species: It is the process that maintains the continuity of species. This process of preserving individual species is known as self-perpetuation.
  2. Population organization: It is the process that maintains the population of young, adult and aged persons.
  3. Variations: The process of reproduction brings about variations in the organisms. These variations are essential for adaptations and evolution.
  4. Life: The existence of life on earth is due to the process of reproduction. The incapability of reproducing by the organisms of a particular species will lead to the extinction of that species.
Types of reproduction in plants:
Based on the structural complexity, physiology and habitat of the organisms in general reproduction is of two types.
Types of reproduction
Vegetative reproduction:
In this method, there will be no fusion of gametes. This mode of reproduction occurs through budding, fragmentation, vegetative propagation, and spore formation.
Vegetative propagation is a type of asexual reproduction that occurs through the vegetative parts of the plant, such as roots, stems or buds.
Vegetative reproduction in plants
Sexual reproduction:
It is the process of development of new individuals through the formation and fusion of gametes. It is also known as amphimixis or amphigony.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants
The process of reproduction will be discussed later in detail in the upcoming discussions.