Theory:

Demonstration of Osmosis:
Aim:
To demonstrate the process of Osmosis.
 
Materials required:
  • Thistle funnel
  • Beaker
  • Semipermeable membrane
  • Sucrose solution
  • Water
Procedure:
  • Take a thistle funnel and cover its mouth with a semipermeable membrane.
  • Fill the funnel with sucrose solution.
  • Now take a beaker with water and place the funnel in an inverted position inside the beaker.
1.svg
Experimental setup
  
Observation:
  
We can observe that the water inside the beaker will diffuse across the semipermeable membrane due to osmosis and will lead to the increase in the level of the solution in the funnel.
 
Inference:
  
From this we can conclude that osmosis is a process in which solvent molecules move from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration across a semi-permeable membrane.
Imbibition:
A type of diffusion in which a solid plant material absorbs water and becomes swollen is known as imbibition.
Example:
Absorption of water by dry seeds and grapes.
It is an important process as it plays a role in the emerging of seedlings out of the soil.
 
The process of imbibition
Differences between osmosis and diffusion:
S.No
Osmosis
Diffusion
1.
This process can be observed only in a liquid mediumIt occurs in liquid, gas and solid mediums.
2.
It requires a semipermeable membrane.It doses not require a semipermeable membrane.
3.
Only solvent molecules diffuse in this process.Molecules of both solute and solvent can diffuse.
4.
During this process the flow of particles occurs only in one direction.During this the flow of particles can be observed in all directions.
5.
The movement in diffusion equalizes concentration throughout the entire system.Osmosis moves in such a way that it tries to equalise solvent concentration, but this does not happen.
6.
It is not associated with the uptake of minerals and nutrients.It helps in the uptake of minerals and nutrients.
7.
It occurs only between similar types of solutionsIt occurs between the similar and dissimilar types of solutions.
Differences between active transport and passive transport:
S.No
Active transport
Passive transport
1.
In this type of transport molecules are moved across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient with the usage of ATP.In this type of transport the molecules are moved within and across the cell membrane and thus transporting it through the concentration gradient, without using ATP (energy).
2.
It is a process that requires cellular energy.It is a process that does not require cellular energy.
3.
In this process particles are moved from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration.In this process particles are moved from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
4.
It is a quick process.It is a slow process.
5.
It involves the usage of proteins known as carrier proteins.Carrier proteins are not involved.
6.
It is a unidirectional process.It is a bidirectional process.
7.
It transports various molecules in the cell. It is involved in the maintenance of the equilibrium level inside the cell.
8.
Exocytosis, Endocytosis,  sodium-potassium pump are some of its types.Osmosis, diffusion, and facilitated diffusion are some of its types.