Theory:

Physical properties of cement:
  
shutterstock_245236165.jpg
Hardening of cement
  • It gives strength to masonry.
  • It is a superb binding material.
  • It is easily workable.
  • It offers good resistance to moisture.
  • It possesses plasticity.
  • It stiffens or hardens early.
Chemical properties of cement:
  
NamePercentage  Properties of chemicals in the cement
Calcium oxide (Lime)\(59\)-\(64\)Excess lime causes expansion or disintegration. If lime is deficient, then it causes the cement to set quickly during mixing.
Silicon dioxide (Silica)\(19\)-\(24\)It gives strength to the cement with the formation of dicalcium and tricalcium silicates. If present in excess, they will prolong the setting time of the cement.
Aluminium oxide (Alumina) \(3\)-\(6\)It gives quick setting property to the cement, but when added in excess, it weakens the cement.
Iron (III) oxide(Ferric oxide)\(1\)-\(4\)It provides hardness, colour, and strength to the cement.
Magnesium oxide\(3\)-\(5\)It provides hardness and colour to the cement. Excess of magnesia makes the cement unsound.
Sulfur trioxide\(1\)-\(3\)It helps in making sound cement (ability to retain the volume after the setting of cement). Excess of it causes the cement to become unsound.
Alkalies\(0.2\)-\(1.3\)Excess of alkalies causes aggregate reaction, efflorescence and staining when used.
 
Uses of Cement:
 
statue.png
Uses of cement
  
At present, cement is widely utilized in the development of varied engineering structures.
It is proved to be one the leading engineering materials of recent times and has no rivals in production and application.

Mortar:
 
shutterstock_589749575.jpg
Mortar
 
Mortar is a paste of cement and sand mixed with water. In houses, mortar is employed to bind building blocks for the construction of walls, over-coating of walls, and the binding of floors. The cement mortar is used for plaster, masonry, etc.
 
Concrete:
 
shutterstock_635599349.jpg
Concrete
 
Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand and gravel. It is utilized in the development of buildings, bridges and dams. Concrete is also used for beams, stairs, weather sheds, laying of floors, roofs and pillars, etc.

Reinforced Cement Concrete:
 
shutterstock_1595947138.jpg
Reinforced cement
 
Reinforced cement concrete is a material formed by mixing iron mesh with cement. This is often very strong and firm. It is utilised in the development of dams, bridges, centring works in houses and in the construction of pillars. Colossal water tanks, water pipes and drainages are also built with reinforced cement.