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Theory:

A Computer is an electronic device that processes data and information according to our needs. We can save the data and translate it into information. We can use the computer in many ways. 
 
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Fig. 1 -  Computer
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Fig. 2 - Modern Computer
 
At the beginning of the \(19\)th century, Charles Babbage, a mathematics professor, has invented an analogue computer. He is known as the father of the computer.
 
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Fig. 3 - Charles Babbage
 
The basic composition designed by him is being used in all computers. Similarly, Augusta Ada Lovelace is praised as the first programmer as she developed essential commands for mathematical operations.
A computer is an electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept data (input), process the data according to specified rules, produce information (output), and store the information for future use.
A Computer is a device available in different shapes that comprises both hardware and software. The functions of hardware and software combine to make the computer functional.
 
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Fig. 4 - Computer Hardware
 
A hardware device helps to enter input information. The software processes the input data and gives the output through a monitor (hardware device). Thus, a computer is like a human body, where the human body is the hardware, and the soul is software.
Hardware
Computer hardware is the collection of physical elements that constitutes a computer system. It refers to the physical parts or components of a computer such as a monitor, mouse, keyboard, computer data storage, hard drive disk (HDD), system unit (graphic cards, sound cards, memory, motherboard and chips), etc. all of  these are physical objects that can be touched.
Input devices:
In computers, an input device is an equipment that is used to give data and control signals to an information processing system.
Example:
Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, Camera, Joystick, Web camera, and Microphone.
Output devices:
An output device is a part of a computer that converts information into human-readable form. It can be text, graphics, audio, and video.
Example:
Monitor, Printer, Plotter, Speaker, Projector and Headphone etc.,
Storage devices:
Data storage is an essential and vital function of computers. A Storage device is  used to store and extract data files and objects.
Example:
Hard disk, Optical disks (which include CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray disc), Flashcard and Memory cards
Software:
Software is a programmed code application that is used to process and execute input information.
The software converts the input information into coding or programming language and executes them to do the particular task allocated by the user. The software typically is a collection of documentation, instructions, and procedures that are capable of performing different tasks on a computer system. Software is not a physical part, so we cannot touch or feel them, but we can see the functions of software through output.
 
Software is primarily classified into two types based on the process,
  • System software (Operating system)
  • Application software
System software:
System software is also known as Operating system.  An Operating System (OS) is an interface between a computer user and computer hardware, which makes the hardware process the input data provided by the user and display the outcome on the output devices.
 
Application Software:
Application software is a program or a group of programs designed for users to benefit for the completion of the various tasks on the computer. The application software can be pre-installed or installed whenever needed by the user on the computer.
 
Functions of a computer:
Basically, a computer does five basic operations. These includes
  • Input or inserting data and instructions.
  • Storing data or information in its memory and retrieving them whenever it is necessary.
  • Processing the data and converting them into useful information.
  • Generating the output or retrieving the data or information.
  • Controlling of devices and functions.
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Fig. 5 - Functions of a Computer
 
Data:
Data is the information that has to be processed. It cannot be used directly by us. Generally, data are in the form of numbers, alphabet and images.
Information:
Information is a form of processed data.