### Theory:

A compass is a device that is used to find the direction.
A compass

It consists of a glass box and a needle. A magnetic needle rotates freely inside the box. A dial is placed inside the box with directions marked on it. The needle coloured in red shows the magnetic north pole of the earth.

Uses of compass:
• A compass is mainly used in ships and aeroplanes for navigation.
• Mountaineers carry a compass to the unknown places to find their way out.
A mountaineer with a compass
Our magnet:
We can make our magnet with the help of a bar magnet.

Rubbing a bar magnet on an iron nail
1. Place a rectangular piece of iron or a nail on the table.
2. Place one end (pole) of a bar magnet near one edge of the iron piece or a nail.
3. Till you reach the other end, move the bar magnet along the length of the iron or a nail.
4. Now, bring the pole to the starting point of the iron or a nail and move it in the same direction again.
5. Note that the pole of the magnet and its direction should not change.
6. Repeat this process several times (around $$30$$ to $$40$$ times).
7. Now, check whether it has become a magnet by placing a pin or some iron filings near the piece of iron or a nail.
8. If not, continue the process again until it gets magnetized.
By this method, we can convert an iron nail, a needle or a blade into a magnet.
Own magnetic compass:
We can make our compass with the help of a magnetized needle.
1. Take two styrofoam or thermocol balls and insert the magnetized needle into it as shown in the figure.
2. Place the needle set up in a water bowl, such that it floats on the water.
Home-made compass

Even when the magnetized needle is placed in the water, the needle will point towards the north-south direction at rest. Instead of styrofoam or thermocol balls, we can use a dry leaf or a cork piece.

A dry leaf floating on water