Plants that provide us with fibres necessary for our uses are called fibre yielding plants.
The fibre that is obtained from the plants are spun into a thread, rope or a cloth. The fibres obtained from plants are called as natural fibres.
Fibre yielding plants are classified according to the uses and the parts of the plant from where the fibre is being obtained.
Types of fibre based on use:
1. Textile fibres- Fibres that are used for making cloth are called as textile fibres. Example includes cotton. Cotton is soft, lightweight, and breathable, and thus is suitable for the summer season.
2. Cordage fibres- Fibres that are used for making ropes are called as cordage fibres. Example includes coconut fibre.
3. Filling fibres - Fibres that are used for making mattresses are called as filling fibres. The fibres are added to the mattress to make them soft, cosy and more comfortable. Example includes silk cotton.
Types of fibre based on the part of the plants:
1. Plant fibres obtained from seed hairs. Example includes cotton.
2. Plant fibres obtained from the stem or bast (phloem - inner bark). The bast fibres usually have higher durability and toughness.
Flax, jute fibers
In India, Jute crop is grown in seven states: West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Odisha, Tripura, Meghalaya, and Uttar Pradesh. In these, West Bengal alone accounts for more than \(50 \%\) of the raw jute production!
3. Plant fibres that are obtained from leaf. Leaf fibres are also used to make non-woven fabrics, paper making, and reinforced composite materials.
Agave (sisal), and abaca fibers
4. Plant fibres that are obtained from husk. Examples include coconut fibre, betel nut husk fibre. The husk fibres can be used as housing insulationmaterials, nonwoven fabrics, doormats, floor mats, brushes, and handicrafts.
How is fabric made from these fibres?
The process of making yarn from fibres is referred to as, Spinning.
The fibres from the mass cotton wool or any fibre are drawn out and twisted. That brings the fibres together to form a yarn. People use a hand spinning device to do the spinning process.
In houses, simply a small quantity of cotton fibre is taken. Hold the fibre between the thumb and forefinger. Gently pull the cotton out when continuously twisting the fibres.
Nowadays spinning of yarn on a large scale is done with the help of the spinning machines. After spinning, yarns are used to produce fabrics.
After spinning, weaving and knitting are done to produce fabric. Click here know about weaving and knitting.