Steps that should be taken to conserve water:
Water is conserved majorly by two methods as follows:
1. Water management:
- Reduce the agricultural wastage of water by increasing the efficiency of irrigation by using drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation.
- Reduce the domestic water wastage.
- Controlling deforestation.
- Minimizing the use of chemical fertilizers.
- Recycling of the used water.
- Promote rainwater harvesting.
- Bringing awareness about the ill effects of throwing wastes into water bodies.
- Constructing plants for the desalination of seawater, so that more water is available for usage.
2. Rainwater harvesting:
It is an important process through which the availability of water can be increased.
The process of collecting rainwater and storing it for future use is known as rainwater harvesting.
"Catch water where it falls" is the basic concept on which rainwater harvesting is based upon.
Preferably the following two techniques are used for rainwater harvesting:
1. Rooftop rainwater harvesting: In this technique, the rainwater is collected from rooftop to a storage tank via pipes. This water contains impurities like traces of soil and hence, need to be filtered before use. We can also let the pipes go directly into a pit in the ground instead of a tank. With this, the water can go into the soil and refill the groundwater.
2. In the second technique, the rainwater from the roadside drains is collected and sent directly into the ground.
The wetlands where the water bodies meet the sea are known as estuaries. These are the places where fresh water from land meet the salty seawater. They are home to unique e plants and animal species.
Coovam is an example of estuary.