The plants that do not produce seeds are known as non-flowering plants. Based on the nature of their plant body the non-flowering plants are classified into three types. They are algae, mosses and ferns.
  • These are groups of plants that do not have a well-differentiated body design as root, stem and leaves. Hence the plant is a thallus.
  • They are predominantly aquatic.
  • They are unicellular or multicellular and filamentous.
  • These plants are commonly known as algae and are mostly aquatic.
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Clock-wise from top left: Chara, Ulva, Chladophora, Spirogyra
  • These are water living plants that require moisture to complete their life cycle.
  • They are known as the amphibians of the plant kingdom as they need moisture to complete their life cycle.
  • In these plants, their body is differentiated to form stem and leaf-like structures.
  • But they lack specialised tissues for the conduction of water, food and other substances.
Mossses such as Funaria, Riccia, Marchantia and liverworts
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Clockwise from top: Funaria, Riccia, Marchantia, Liverworts
  • Ferns are plants whose body is differentiated into roots, stem and leaves. The leaves may be large or small.
  • They also have specialised tissue to conduction of water and other substances from one part of the plant body to another. Hence, they are known as vascular cryptogams.
  • They are found in terrestrial or dry areas.
  • They grow in shady, moist, and cool places.
  • These are the first land plants.             
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Clockwise from top: Marsilea, Ferns, Horsetails, Adiantum