The plants that do not produce seeds are known as non-flowering plants. Based on the nature of their plant body the non-flowering plants are classified into three types. They are algae, mosses and ferns.
- These are groups of plants that do not have a well-differentiated body design as root, stem and leaves. Hence the plant is a thallus.
- They are predominantly aquatic.
- They are unicellular or multicellular and filamentous.
- These plants are commonly known as algae and are mostly aquatic.
Clock-wise from top left: Chara, Ulva, Chladophora, Spirogyra
- These are water living plants that require moisture to complete their life cycle.
- They are known as the amphibians of the plant kingdom as they need moisture to complete their life cycle.
- In these plants, their body is differentiated to form stem and leaf-like structures.
- But they lack specialised tissues for the conduction of water, food and other substances.
Mossses such as Funaria, Riccia, Marchantia and liverworts
Clockwise from top: Funaria, Riccia, Marchantia, Liverworts
- Ferns are plants whose body is differentiated into roots, stem and leaves. The leaves may be large or small.
- They also have specialised tissue to conduction of water and other substances from one part of the plant body to another. Hence, they are known as vascular cryptogams.
- They are found in terrestrial or dry areas.
- They grow in shady, moist, and cool places.
- These are the first land plants.
Clockwise from top: Marsilea, Ferns, Horsetails, Adiantum