Theory:

What is nomenclature?
 
The system of naming organisms is known as nomenclature.
Importance of nomenclature:
Nomenclature is a system that helps people to identify an organism with a standard name anywhere in the world.
The system of nomenclature names the organism by a name that mentions the genus and species name of the organism.
This concept of giving name which denotes the genus and species for the organism is known as binomial nomenclature.
Binomial Nomenclature:
The naming of organisms with two names is known as binomial nomenclature.
It was introduced by Gaspard Bauhin in \(1623\) and was implemented by Carolus Linnaeus in \(1753\). Hence Carolus Linnaeas was known as the 'Father of Modern Taxonomy'.
 
1024px-Carolus_Linnaeus._Stipple_engraving_by_S._G._&_J._G._Facius_Wellcome_V0003605.jpg
Carolus Linnaeus
According to this system the name consists of two parts:
  • a generic
  • a specific epithet.
The first name is the Genus name or Genericname that  starts with a capital letter and the Species name starts with a small letter.
 
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Example of binomial nomenclature - Mangifera indica
Example:
The nomenclature for onion is Allium sativam. Genus name is Allium, species name is sativam.
  • Lion: Panthera leo
  • Tiger: Panthera Tigris
  • Mango: Mangifera indica
The local name which is familiar for a particular place is known as vernacular name.
  • The binomial name is an universal name that never changes.
  • The classification and binomial nomenclature or organisms helps the scientists to identify any organisms and to place them at a particular hierarchy.
Scientific names of some organisms:
S.No
Common name
Scientific name
1.
Human beings
Homo sapiens
2.
Onion
Allium sativum
3.
Rat
Rattus rattus
4.
Pigeon
Columba livia
5.
Tamarind
Tamarindus indica
6.
Lime
Citrus aurantifolia
7.
Neem Tree
Azadirachta indica
8.
Frog
Rana hexadactyla
9.
Coconut
Cocos nucifera
10.
Paddy
Oryza sativa
11.
Fish
Catla catla
12.
Orange
Citrus sinensis
13.
Ginger
Zingiber officinale
14.
Papaya
Carica papaya
15.
Date
Phoenix dactylifera
Reference:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Carolus_Linnaeus._Stipple_engraving_by_S._G._%26_J._G._Facius_Wellcome_V0003605.jpg/1024px-Carolus_Linnaeus._Stipple_engraving_by_S._G._%26_J._G._Facius_Wellcome_V0003605.jpg
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/Type-species-of-genus.png