In addition to the cell membrane, the plant cells contain a thick outer layer known as the cell wall. The cell wall surrounding the cell membrane protects the plants from variations in temperature, high wind speed, atmospheric moisture etc., by preventing them from moving. Unlike plant cells, animals lack cell walls.
Plant cell wall
Bacterial cell wall
The cell wall serves as a structural framework for the plant and bacterial cells. In-plant cells, the cell wall is made up of a non-living substance known as cellulose. Cellulose helps maintain the shape of the plant cell and makes them rigid and upright even when it grows in height.
The cells are interconnected with each other (neighbouring cells) through openings known as plasmodesmata.
It is the area of movement. The jelly-like substance that is found between the cell membrane and the nucleus and makes up the major part of the cell is known as the cytoplasm which is the major part of the cell.
Cell and cell organelles
The cytoplasm is made up of the cytosol and the cell organelles. The cytosol is a watery, jelly-like substance that is made up of \(70%\) to \(90%\)water and colourless.
All the various cell organelles such as the,
- Endoplasmic reticulum
- Golgi apparatus
These organelles are surrounded by the plasma membrane and the cell wall.
Protoplasm and cytoplasm:
The materials that are found inside and outside the nuclear membrane is known as protoplasm.
The fluid that is found outside the nucleus is known as cytoplasm.