Antacid is a substance, which is used to neutralize the acidity in the stomach.
What is acidity?
Acidity means an increased level of acid
Acidity is caused when the secretion of acid by gastric glands is excess. Human stomach naturally produces gastric or hydrochloric acid (HCl) to seize up and digest the food. The production of acid increases due to consuming alcohol, spicy foods, dehydration and stress. The excess production of acid causes acidity. The excess acid may move to the esophagus from the stomach.
(The layer of tissue inside the stomach is designed to bear the \(pH\) range of \(1\) to \(3\)).
How antacid works?
Antacid is a weak base. As we studied in chemistry, when a base iscombined with an acid, neutralization takes place. So, when humans consume antacid, a chemical reaction occurs, and it reduces the acidity.
Example for antacids:
Sodium bicarbonate (\(NaHCO_3\))
Calcium carbonate (\(CaCO_3\))
Magnesium carbonate (\(MgCO_3\))
Side effects of antacids:
We may feel the following side effects while using antacid for the long-term.
  • Diarrhoea (diarrhea)
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Constipation
A substance which lowers the body temperature called antipyretic.
Body temperature and fever:
The average body temperature ranges from 98.4°F to 98.6°F (i.e., 36.8 to 37°C). If the temperature is raised from these ranges, it is called "fever". Fever is caused by infections. Above a certain temperature, bacteria and viruses cannot develop. To shield the invading viruses and bacteria, immunity system raises the body temperature.
Normal-high temperature of body
How is the body temperature raised?
At the moment of infection, the immune system releases a chemical called "pyrogen". These pyrogens are sent to the hypothalamus, present at the bottom of the brain, via the bloodstream. While sensing the pyrogens, the hypothalamus increases the body temperature by leaving the chemical called "prostaglandin".
Effect of temperature:
A little fever is good for our health since the temperature increase arrests the growth of infection. However, if the temperature is raised above 105°F, it may affect the protein in our body and brain, causesseizures and delirium. Also, prolonged high fever causes death.

How antipyretic works?
As we discussed earlier, antipyretic reduces the body temperature or fever. They bring down the release of prostaglandin, which increases the body temperature.
Some of the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents are:
  • Paracetamol (most common antipyretic)
  • Aspirin
  • Ibuprofen
  • Diclofenac