The immediate treatment that is given to a victim of trauma or sudden illness before the availability of medical help is known as first aid.
In minor conditions such a normal skin scratch the first aid is enough. But in serious problems the first aid should be continued till an advanced medical care becomes available. For diseases such as cholera oral rehydration salts (ORS) mixed with water is given as a first aid.
Characteristics of first aid:
- To save life.
- To prevent the condition of further bleeding.
- To determine the condition of an individual.
- To provide a medical care that is available at the earliest.
A first kit containing containing antibacterial solution, ointments and bandages
First aid by adhesive strip
The damage of tissue due to heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight or nuclear radiations are known as burns. In general burns are mostly caused due to scalds (hot liquids), building fires, flammable liquids and gases.
A picture showing burn on the hand
According to the degree of burning burns are of three types. They are first-degree burns, second-degree burns and the third degree burns.
- The burns that affect only the outer layer of skin (epidermis) are known as first-degree burns.
- The burns that affect the epidermis and the dermis (layer below the epidermis) are known as second-degree burns.
- The burns that damage the skin completely in which the underlying tissues are also damaged are known as third-degree burns. The people who experience such type of burns often require skin grafting.
The degrees of burn
First aid for burns:
If the burns are minor ones they should be washed with cold water and an antiseptic cream should be applied. If the burns are severe in which the deeper layers of the tissues are destroyed and blisters are formed the use of water in these areas should be avoided. The burnt area should be covered with cloth and bandages that are non-sticky and clean. The larger burns need immediate attentions. Hence, it is very important to have a fire extinguisher readily available.