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### Theory:

Everything around us is made up of various chemicals. For instance, soil, water, air, salt, sugar, etc. Acids, bases and salts are the most commonly used chemicals in daily life. It may be fruit juice, detergent or medication. Acids and bases play an important role in our day-to-day lives. The hydrochloric acid produced in our stomach is used to carry out our body's metabolism.
In an aqueous solution, an acid can produce hydrogen ions ($$H^+$$), while a base can produce hydroxyl ions ($$OH^-$$). When an acid and a base react, a neutral product is formed, which is called salt.
In this lesson, let us discuss acids and bases in detail.
Acids
Curd, lemon juice, orange juice and vinegar are all things that you have probably tried. Since these foods contain acid, they have a sour taste when consumed. Acidic compounds are those that contain acid. The term "acidic" comes from the Latin word "acere," which means "sour."
In 1884, Svante Arrhenius, a Swedish chemist, proposed an acid-base theory. According to the Arrhenius principle, an acid is a substance that produces $$H^+$$ or $$H_3^{O+}$$ ions in water. They have one or two hydrogen atoms that can be replaced.
For example, hydrochloric acid ($$HCl$$) produces $$H^+$$ and $$Cl^-$$ ions when it is dissolved in water. Similarly, sulphuric acid ($$H_2SO_4$$) produces $$H^+$$ and $$SO_4^{2-}$$ ions as shown below:

${\mathit{HCl}}_{\left(\mathit{aq}\right)}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\stackrel{}{⟶}{\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}H}_{\left(\mathit{aq}\right)}^{+}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}+\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}{\mathit{Cl}}_{\left(\mathit{aq}\right)}^{-}$

${{H}_{2}{\mathit{SO}}_{4}}_{\left(\mathit{aq}\right)}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\stackrel{}{⟶}{\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}H}_{\left(\mathit{aq}\right)}^{+}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}+\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}{{{\mathit{SO}}_{4}}^{2-}}_{\left(\mathit{aq}\right)}$

In the absence of water, the separation of the $$H^+$$ ion from the $$HCl$$ molecules is impossible. Hydrogen ions cannot exist on their own; they must be combined with water molecules to exist.

${H}^{+}+{H}_{2}O\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\stackrel{}{⟶}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}{H}_{3}{O}^{+}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\left(\mathit{Hydronium}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\mathit{ion}\right)$

$\mathit{HCl}+{H}_{2}O\stackrel{}{⟶}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}{H}_{3}{O}^{+}+{\mathit{Cl}}^{-}$