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### Theory:

When an acid and a base are combined, a chemical reaction occurs. This process is called neutralisation. The reaction mixture produces heat during neutralisation; hence, it is an exothermic reaction.
In neutralisation reaction, a new substance is formed, which is known as salt. The salt produced here can be either acidic, basic or neutral.

$\mathit{Acid}+\mathit{Base}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\stackrel{}{⟶}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\mathit{Salt}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}+\mathit{Water}+\mathit{Heat}$

The reaction between the hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide gives salt and water as a product. It is one example for neutralization reaction.

$\mathit{HCl}+\mathit{NaOH}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\stackrel{}{⟶}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\mathit{NaCl}+{H}_{2}O+\mathit{Heat}$

Acid-base reaction

Similarly, other acids also produce salt and water when reacting with the base. Let us see some examples of the reaction of acids with sodium hydroxide ($$NaOH$$).

$\begin{array}{l}{H}_{2}{\mathit{SO}}_{4}+\mathit{NaOH}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\stackrel{}{⟶}{\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\mathit{Na}}_{2}{\mathit{SO}}_{4} +{H}_{2}O\\ \mathit{Sulphuric}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\mathit{Sodium}\\ \mathit{acid}\phantom{\rule{3.969em}{0ex}}\mathit{sulphate}\end{array}$

$\begin{array}{l}H{\mathit{NO}}_{3}+\mathit{NaOH}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\stackrel{}{⟶}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\mathit{Na}{\mathit{NO}}_{3}{+H}_{2}O\\ \mathit{Nitric}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{1.176em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\mathit{Sodium}\\ \mathit{acid}\phantom{\rule{3.969em}{0ex}}\mathit{nitrate}\end{array}$

$\begin{array}{l}{\mathit{CH}}_{3}\mathit{COOH}+\mathit{NaOH}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\stackrel{}{⟶}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}{\mathit{CH}}_{3}\mathit{COONa}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}+{H}_{2}O\\ \mathit{Acetic}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{1.029em}{0ex}}\mathit{Sodium}\\ \mathit{acid}\phantom{\rule{5.292em}{0ex}}\mathit{acetate}\end{array}$
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