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### Theory:

There are some gases apart from natural gases that are used as fuel. They are,
• Producer gas
• Coal gas
• Bio-gas
• Water-gas
Producer gas:

A gaseous mixture of carbon monoxide and nitrogen is known as Producer gas. It is produced by passing air mixed with steam over $$1100°C$$ red hot coke. It is used as industrial fuel in the production of iron and steel.

Coal gas:
The destructive distillation of coal releases a mixture of gases such as hydrogen, methane and carbon monoxide. The process of heating coal without air is known as Destructive distillation. This process is used in the steel industry to heat open-hearth furnaces. In some metallurgical processes, it is also utilised as a reducing agent.

Production of coal gas

Water-gas:

It is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that exists as a gas. At a temperature of $$1000°C$$, steam is passed over incandescent coke.

${C}_{\left(g\right)}+{H}_{2}{O}_{\left(g\right)}\stackrel{1000\mathrm{°}C}{⟶}\phantom{\rule{0.147em}{0ex}}{\mathit{CO}}_{\left(g\right)}+{H}_{2\left(g\right)}$

It is also known as syngas or synthesis gas because it is used to make methanol and other simple hydrocarbons. It can also be used as an industrial fuel.

Bio-gas:

Methane and carbon dioxide are mixed in bio-gas. It is produced when organic matter (plant and animal waste) decomposes. When organic matter decomposes in anaerobic conditions (i.e., without oxygen), biogas is produced. Bio-gas is an example of a renewable energy source.

Bio-gas

Bio-gas production in anaerobic conditions