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Theory:

Coal has few applications, which are listed below.
  • Coal is a fuel that may be used to generate both heat and electricity.
  • It is used to make silicon derivatives that are used in the manufacture of lubricants, water repellents, resins, cosmetics, hair shampoos, and toothpaste.
  • Face packs and cosmetics contain activated charcoal.
  • Paper is made of coal.
  • Coal is used to make alumina refineries. The carbon fibre is utilised in construction, mountain bikes and tennis rackets since it is incredibly strong with lightweight.
Products from Coal
When coal is heated without air, it does not burn and instead produces a number of by-products. This process is known as Destructive distillation. This coal-processing procedure can be performed in laboratories.
Coke, ammonia, coal tar and coal gas are the main by-products of destructive distillation.
 
Procedure:
 
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Destructive distillation
 
Finely powdered coal is heated in a test tube. Coal decomposes at a specific temperature to produce coke, coal tar, ammonia and coal gas. The coal tar settles in the bottom of the second test tube, while the coal gas escapes out the side tube. The ammonia generated is absorbed in the water, resulting in the formation of ammonium hydroxide. Finally, the tube contains a black residue known as Coke.
 
Coal and coal by-products are used in thousands of different goods.
Example: Soap, aspirins (tablet), solvents, dyes, plastics and fibres, such as rayon and nylon.
 
Coke
  • Coke has a carbon content of \(98\)%.
  • It is the most porous, black and pure type of coal.
  • It is a good fuel that burns without smoke.
  • It is primarily utilised in the extraction of metals from their ores as a reducing agent.
  • It is also used for making fuel gases such as producer gas and water gas.
Coal tar
  • Coal tar is made up of a variety of carbon compounds.
  • It is a thick, black liquid with an unpleasant odour.
  • Fractional distillation of coal tar yields benzene, toluene, phenol and aniline, among other chemicals.
  • Dyes, explosives, paints, synthetic fibres, medicines and pesticides are all made of coal tar.
  • Naphthalene balls used to repel moths and other insects are made from coal tar.
Coal gas
  • It is also known as town gas and is composed primarily of hydrogen, methane and carbon monoxide.
  • Since the gases in coal gas are flammable, it makes a great fuel. It has a lot of calories.
Ammonia
  • Ammonia is another by-product of coal mining.
  • It is used to make fertilisers like ammonium sulphate and ammonium superphosphate, among other things.
Reference:
https://cf.ydcdn.net/latest/images/main/A5destructivedistill.jpg