People's Biodiversity Register:
Bio-resources mean plants, animals and microorganisms, their genetic material and by-products with actual or potential use or value.
People's Biodiversity Register (PBR) is a document containing comprehensive information on locally available bio-resources including the landscape and demography of a specific area or village.
It creates awareness among the people about the plants and animals conditions and their conservation and sustainable utilization.
Biodiversity Management Committee (BMC) is set up at local bodies according to the Biological Diversity Act, \(2002\). The committee prepares the PBR with the National Biodiversity Authority and the State Biodiversity Boards' guidance and technical support.
Importance of PBR:
1. PBR preparation promotes conservation and preservation of habitats, breeding of animals and gathering the knowledge related to biological diversity.
2. The register has a complete documentation of biodiversity in a specific area related to the plant, food source, wildlife, medicinal source, traditional knowledge etc.
3. Develops a biodiversity management plan of the area that conserves existing and rare endangered threatened species - flora and fauna.
4. It serves as a database for existing available biodiversity and to asses in the future.
It is the accumulation of toxic substances in the food chain. It is also called bio-accumulation or biological magnification. The contaminants can be heavy metals such as mercury, arsenic or pesticides like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and DDT (Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane).
Biomagnification is increase in contaminated substances due to the intoxicating environment.
These chemicals are released into the environment, which are ingested or absorbed by the lower organisms through their food. The chemicals are transferred to different trophic levels when organisms in the higher food chain consume the organisms in the lower food chain that contains these toxins. Thus, the toxins get accumulated in the higher organisms.
Causes of Bio-magnification:
1. Toxic agricultural fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, weedicides and fungicides are released into the soil and water bodies (rivers, lakes, and seas). They cause health issues in aquatic organisms (as they absorb the toxic chemicals) and humans.
2. Organic contaminants cause adverse side effects on the health of humans, animals, and wildlife.
3. Industrial activities release toxic substances that enter into the food chain that leads to bio-magnification.
4. Mining activities generate a large amount of sulphide and selenium deposits in water. These are toxic and are absorbed by the aquatic organisms in the food chain.
Effects of Bio-magnification
Effects of bio-magnification on living organisms and the environment:
1. Has more impact on humans causing cancer, liver failure, heart disease, kidney problems, birth defects, and respiratory disorders.
2. Affects the development and reproduction of marine organisms.
3. Causes destruction of coral reefs, which affects the lives of aquatic animals.
4. Chemicals and toxins released into the water bodies disrupt the food chain.