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Locomotion in cockroaches:
Cockroaches are invertebrates that can walk, climb, and fly to a certain height in the air. The body of the cockroach is divided into three parts which include the head, thorax and the abdomen.
The cockroach has three pairs of legs and two pairs of wings. The wings help in movement, and the two pairs of legs help in walking.
The body of the cockroach is covered with a hard skeleton made up of several chitin plates linked together. These plates permit the movement of the cockroach. This chitin regularly sheds so that the body can grow.
The two pairs of wings are found attached to the body behind the head.
The cockroaches have distinct muscles.
The muscles near the legs aid them in walking, and the body or breast muscles are responsible for the movement of their wings during flight.
The cockroaches are known for their speed among the other insects as they are the insects that run very fast on land.
Locomotion in birds:
Have you ever observed a hen and crow? The way they move around and their body structure differ. These differences are discussed below.
Birds can both walk on land as well as fly in the air.
Few birds such as the ducks, pelicans, and swans can also swim in the water.
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The bird skeleton
Birds are known for their flight. They are well-suited for flying due to these following characteristics.
  • They have hollow bones that are light in weight. Hence their bones are known as pneumatic bones.
  • They have a streamlined body (compared to a boat) that makes them move easier in the air.
  • Their hindlimb (lower portion of limbs) bones are modified as claws, in particular for walking and perching. 
  • Their forelimbs are modified as wings equipped with feathers.
  • They have modified breastbones that contain massive flight muscles responsible for moving the wings up and down.
  • The wings and tail of the birds have long feathers, which help them in flying.
Types of movement in birds:
Birds show two types of flight movement. They are gliding and flapping.
During this movement, the wings and tails of the birds spread out. The birds use the air currents for moving up and down.
Gliding movement in birds
It is an active flight during which the bird beats the air by flapping its wings equipped with light feathers.
Flapping movement in birds