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Along with their economic importance, fungi also cause various diseases in plants and animals. Some of them are as discussed below.
Diseases caused by fungi in plants:
Some of the diseases caused by fungi are as follows:
1. Wilt disease of cotton:
Fusarium oxysporum is a fungus that causes wilt in cotton plants. Fusarium oxysporum is a wild spread soil-inhabiting fungus. Wilt of cotton is a major disease that causes significant economic loss.
Wilt disease of cotton
2. Tikka disease in groundnut:
Cercospora personate is an example of parasitic fungi. It affects groundnut plants and causes Tikka disease.
Groundnut leaves affected with Tikka disease caused by Cercospora personata
3. Red rot in sugar cane:
It is a very serious disease of sugarcane. It is caused by the fungus called Colletotrichum falcatum. This disease causes damage to the sugarcane crops mainly by reducing the crop stands and reducing the sucrose content in cane juice.
Red rot in sugar cane
4. Blast disease in paddy:
It is a disease that is caused by the fungus Pyricularia oryzae. It is one of the most severe disease in paddy.
Blast disease in paddy
5. White rust in radish:
It is a disease that is caused by the fungus Albugo candida. This fungus usually affects the leaves. The fungus appears as white, raised spore masses on the underside of the leaves.
White rust in radish
Diseases caused by fungi in humans:
Some of the diseases caused by fungi in humans are as follows:
1. Ring worm:
It is also known as dermatophytosis. It is a fungal infection of the skin in which circular rashes are found. It is caused by Trichophyton sp.
2. Dandruff:
It is a skin condition that majorly affects the scalp. It is caused by the fungus known as Microsporum furfur.
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Dandruff observed on hair and scalp
3. Athletes foot:
It is a fungal infection that is caused by the fungus Tinea pedis. This infection usually begins between the toes.
Athlete's foot
4. Claviceps purpuriya:
It is a fungus that causes immense damages to adolescents. It gives them unreal, extraordinary lightness and hovering sensations. Hence, it is known as the hallucinogenic fungi.
5. Allergy:
Allergy sometimes is caused due to the fungus of Aspergillus species. But, fungi like Cladosporiumprotects us from this type of allergies.
Differences between algae and fungi:
They are autotrophs.They are heterotrophs.
They contain pigments.They lack pigments.
They are classified based on the pigments they contain.They are classified based on their reproduction modes.
The reserve food material is starch.The reserve food materials are glycogen and oil
Some algae are prokaryotic in nature.
E.g: Cyanobacteria (Nostoc, Anabenae)
All are eukaryotic nature.
E.g.: Agaricus