Take a 10 minutes test to understand your learning levels and get personalised training plan!

Download now on Google Play


Reproduction is vital for the continuation of the human race.
The phase in an individual's life during the production of gametes is called the reproductive phase.
With the onset of puberty, adolescents can reproduce due to gametes or sex cells (ova or egg in females, sperms in males). The ability to produce gametes in humans lasts only for a specific time period. The time period varies between males and females.
In females, the reproductive phase starts from puberty, i.e., \(10\) to \(12\) \(years\) of age, and lasts up to \(45\) to \(50\) \(years\) of age. In males, the production of gametes lasts for a much longer time, where the production of gametes start from the age of \(13\) to lifelong.
Reproductive phase in females
The first menstrual flow that occurs at puberty is termed menarche.
Menarche is the beginning of the reproductive life in girls. From puberty, the eggs or ova start to mature in the ovary. Menarche is the beginning of adolescence, where mental and emotional maturation occurs with pronounced physical growth.
Ovulation occurs approximately \(14\) days before the next menstrual cycle. In a \(28\) day cycle, ovulation occurs at about day \(14\). One of the ovaries releases the mature ovum once in \(28\) to \(30\) days.
The release of the ovum from the ovary is called ovulation
During this time, the inner lining or uterus wall grows and thickens to receive the egg in case of fertilisation. This causes pregnancy.
Menstrual cycle
After ovulation, the ovum reaches the uterus through the fallopian tube. In the fallopian tube, if  sperms meets ova, fertilisation takes place. If fertilisation occurs, the fertilised egg or the zygote develops to form an embryo. The embryo then gets implanted or embedded in the uterus.
The corpus luteum, or the inner lining of uterus continues to grow, which leads to pregnancy. During the growth of the corpus luteum, there is a production of a large amount of progesterone. Pregnancy is about \(280\) days, and at the end of which parturition takes place.
When fertilisation of the ovum does not occur, the thick lining of the uterus or corpus luteum sheds along with the unfertilised egg and blood vessels. Since there is degeneration of the corpus luteum, the production of hormones estrogen and progesterone ceases.
This causes bleeding in the female reproductive tract, called menstruation. Menstruation thus occurs once in \(28\) to \(30\) days. Menstruation occurs for about \(3\) to \(5\) days. In some women, initially, menstruation may be irregular but becomes regular after some time.
The menstrual cycle halts when a woman is pregnant. However, the menstrual cycle stops when women reach \(45\) to \(50\) years. Menopause marks the end of the reproductive phase of woman's life.
The stoppage of menstruation is called menopause.
During menopause, there are many symptoms seen in women:
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of concentration
  • Hot flashes and chills
  • Thinning of hair and hair fall
  • Vaginal dryness and Irregular periods 
Symptoms of menopause
Women stop ovulating at menopause, and menstruation stops permanently. Menopause can be induced by the removal of ovaries through surgery or by pelvic radiation in women of any age. The menstrual cycle is controlled by hormones.