LEARNATHON
III

Competition for grade 6 to 10 students! Learn, solve tests and earn prizes!

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Theory:

 
S.No.
Properties
Acid
Base
1.
Taste
Sour taste
Bitter taste
2.
Litmus test
Blue litmus turns red.
Red litmus turns blue.
3.
Electrical conductivity
Since their aqueous solutions contain ions, they conduct electricity.
Conducts electricity just as acids can.
4.
Reaction with metals
Produces hydrogen gas when they react with active metals.
 
Mg+H2SO4MgSO4+H2Zn+HClZnCl2+H2
 
Produces hydrogen gas and salt when they react with metals.
 
Zn+2NaOH2Na2ZnO2+H2
5.
Reaction with metallic oxide
Salt and water are produced.
 
CaO+H2SO4CaSO4+H2O
Reacts with non-metallic oxides to produce salt and water.
 
CaO+H2SO4CaSO4+H2O
6.
Reaction with acid/base
Acids and bases combine to form salt and water.
 
CaOH2+CO2CaCO3+H2O
 
Acids and bases combine to form salt and water.
 
CaOH2+CO2CaCO3+H2O
7.
pH
< \(7\)
> \(7\)
8.
In aqueous solutions
Produces \(H^+\) ions.
Produces \(OH^-\) ions.
 
Uses of acids:
  • Since it is used to make many other compounds, sulphuric acid is known as the "King of Chemicals." It is also used in car batteries.
  • In toilets, hydrochloric acid is used as a cleaning agent.
  • Citric acid is used to make effervescent salts and is also used as a food preservative.
  • Fertilizers, dyes, colours and medicines are all made with nitric acid.
  • Iron and manganese deposits on quartz crystals are removed with oxalic acid. It is also used to remove black stains and as wood bleach.
  • In aerated beverages, carbonic acid is used.
  • Baking powder has tartaric acid as a component.
Uses of bases:
  • In the production of soap, sodium hydroxide is used.
  • Buildings are whitewashed with calcium hydroxide.
  • Magnesium hydroxide is a drug that is used to treat stomach problems.
  • Grease stains on clothing are removed with ammonium hydroxide.