Four blocks of elements:
  • We know that the electrons in an atom are arranged in shells around the nucleus.
  • Each shell comprises one or more subshells in which the electrons are shared in a particular manner. These subshells are named s, p, d, and f.
  • Based on the order of electrons in subshells, the periodic table elements are divided into four blocks: s, p, d and f.
S,P,D and F-block elements.png
s-Block Elements:
1. Alkali metals:
  • It contains groups \(1\) (alkali metals) and \(2\) (alkaline earth metals) elements.
  • They are also named as representative elements.
  • Except for hydrogen, the elements in group \(1\) are metals.
  • When they react with water, they form solutions that turn red litmus paper in to blue.
  • These solutions are classified as highly alkaline or basic. As a result, they are known as alkali metals.
2. Alkaline earth metals:
  • The group \(2\) elements are metals.
  • They react with oxygen to form oxides, formerly known as 'earth,' and these oxides contain alkaline solutions when dissolved in water.
  • As a result, these elements are known as alkaline earth metals.
 p-Block Elements:
  • These elements are found in periodic table groups (\(13\)-\(18\)).
  • In addition to noble gases, they include the boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine families (except helium).
  • They are also named as representative elements.
  • The p-block is home to the widest variety of elements and is the only block that includes all three types of elements: metals, non-metals, and metalloids.
d-Block Elements:
  • It contains elements from groups (\(3\) to \(12\)).
  • They are located in the middle of the periodic table.
  • These block elements' properties are intermediate to that of s and p block elements. Hence, they are called transition elements.
f-Block Elements:
  • It contains \(14\) elements named Lanthanoides after (Lanthanum) La (\(57\)) and \(14\) elements called Actinoides after (Actinium) Ac (\(89\)).
  • They are fixed at the bottom of the periodic table.
  • They are also named as inner transition elements.