Theory:

Inner or Terrestrial Planets:
Mercury
Venus
Smallest and closest planet to the SunSecond planet from the Sun
Airless and waterless planet.Earth’s Twin (almost the same size as the Earth)
No atmosphereNo atmosphere
Experiences extremes of temperatureLongest rotation period (243 days)
No satellitesNo satellites
Mercury can be viewed in the morning and evening with naked eye.Visible in the mornings and the evenings. Also called as the Morning Star and the Evening Star.
Rotates from West to East.It Rotates in the opposite direction to all other planets except Uranus, i.e. East to West.
 After the Moon, it is the brightest natural object in the night sky.
shutterstock_367615301.jpg
shutterstock_418733752.jpg
 
Mercury is only about as wide as the Atlantic Ocean.
Inner or Terrestrial Planets:
Earth
Mars
Third Planet from Sun and Fifth largest planet.Fourth planet from the Sun and Second smallest planet in the solar system.
Only planet known to support life. 
Atmosphere mainly made of: Nitrogen (78%) and Oxygen (21%)Thin atmosphere
Rotation period: 23 hours, 56 minutes
 
Satellite: MoonSatellites: Phobos and Deimos
Also known as blue planet’ or ‘watery planet’ because three-fourth of the Earth is covered by water.Appears red, due to the presence of iron oxide on its surface
Often described as The Red Planet.
Rotates from West to East
Rotates from West to East
The only planet in the solar system which is not named after any Greek or Roman deity.It also has polar ice.
shutterstock_1291831012.jpg
shutterstock_1350920336.jpg
 
Venus has yellow clouds made of sulfur and sulfuric acid cover the entire planet causing light to reflect off the surface.
Note: The below image is from the textbook - to be restructured
 
solar2.jpg
Planets in Order of Size
Jupiter (Largest)> Saturn > Uranus > Neptune > Earth > Venus > Mars > Mercury (Smallest)