Theory:

The Peshwa Administration
  • The Maratha administration under the Peshwas witnessed various changes that took the empire to greater heights. The officers under the Maratha regime were known for their record-keeping practices.
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Maratha Empire
 
  • Kamavisdar, was an official appointed by the Peshwa to take care of the revenue collection, while Husur Daftar was the secretariat of the Peshwas.
  • Lands under the Peshwa rule was monitored by the Jagirdars, and the Peshwas divided the villages into small units which were headed by the “Patils”.
BALUTE SYSTEM: An amount of agricultural produce collected by the state from the Peasants, this method of collection is called as Balute system.
  • Kulkarni’s are officials who are appointed to maintain the records, Marathas are known for the record-keeping practices which helped the historians in later stages.
  • Deshmukh and Deshpande’s were appointed to keep a check on the corrupt practices who were appointed by the Peshwa.
The End of the Maratha empire
  • The Maratha rulers tried to expand their power base by conquests and capture of territories. This idea moved them towards the north of the Indian Sub-continent. The plan of Marathas to capture the northern lands was stymied by the presence of Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah Abdali.
AHMAD SHAH ABDALI: He was the first emperor of the Durrani empire, also he was considered the founder of Modern Afghanistan.
  • Abdali set his eyes to conquer India and invaded the land of Punjab three times and failed to take control of the lands. He also invaded India eight times to plunder the wealth of the nation.
  • Abdali son Timur Shah was driven out of Punjab by the Maratha rulers in \(1758\), which angered Abdali and he invaded Delhi in \(1759\).
 
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Ahmad Shah Abdali
  • The Infighting among the Maratha rulers was one of the main reasons which allowed Abdali to make his inroads into India. Abdali also used this to attack the Marathas which culminated in a full-scale war. 
THIRD BATTLE OF PANIPAT: The battle was fought between the Maratha rulers and Abdali in \(1761\), which ended the supremacy of Marathas in India.
  • The Death of Balaji Baji Rao and his successor Vishwas Rao after the crushing defeat in the hands of Ahmad Shah Abdali was the final nail on the coffin of the Maratha empire.