### Theory:

The Birth of Shivaji
• Shivaji, who was considered the greatest of all Martha rulers was born in $$1627$$in Shivner, Junnar. He was born to the couple of Shahji Bhonsle and Jijabai. Shivaji’s father Shahji was a descendant of Yadava rulers of Devagiri.
• Shahji Bhonsle served as the minister under Malik Amber, who was an Abyssinian slave and the minister of Ahmad Shah.

Shivaji – The Maratha King
• Post the demise of Malik Amber, the kingdom of Ahmednagar was brought under the control of Mughals, and hence Shahji Bhonsle served under the Sultan of Bijapur.
The Childhood of Shivaji
• Shivaji during his childhood was taught various ideals of justice and morals from epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, which served as a great treasure of knowledge.
DADAJI KONDADEV: He was considered as the guardian and teacher of Shivaji who taught him the art of warfare, administration and other skills of survival. He also took care of the Jagirs (land grants given by the King) of Shivaji’s father Shahji.
• The Jagirs under the control of Dadaji were shifted under Shivaji after the death of Dadaji in $$1649$$.
Early conquests in Poona
• Shivaji entered into conquests at the very young age of 18, where he went on to conquer the forts of Kondana and Torna in Poona. He went on to establish the Independent Maratha empire with “Raigad” as its capital
• He also captured many other forts in nearby areas of his empire and went on to capture “Javali” from its ruler Chandra Rao More in $$1656$$.
BATTLE OF PRATAPGARH:  This Battle took place in the year 1659, where Shivaji took on Afzal Khan, who was the general of Adil Shah and killed him.
Shivaji vs Bijapur Sultan
• Shivaji reigned supreme during his conquests against the rulers of his nearby Kingdoms. He also received continuous support from the people of Maratha who felt a sense of Pride under the rule of Shivaji.
MAVALI PEOPLE: They are people of the Mavali region, who are peasants and martial arts trainers, who had abundant knowledge about the Mountain terrains of Poona. They also served under the army of Shivaji.
• Shivaji went on to capture the fort of Purandhar from the Mughal rulers which don’t go well with the Sultan of Bijapur. To express his anger, the Bijapur Sultan captured Shahji, the father of Shivaji.
Bijapur Sultan

• Shivaji went on to make peace with the Sultan and promised him to withdraw the military conquests and further expansion of his territories which made the Sultan release his father.
• He concentrated on fine-tuning his skills and enhancing the administration until his father’s death.