Dynamics of \(16^t\)\(^h\) Century India:
  • The Beginning of the \(16^t\)\(^h\) Century saw the invasion of various forces from West Asian countries, who were lured by the abundant resources that are available in India. The tussle for the control of India by various forces continued for a long time.
  • The period of the \(16^t\)\(^h\) century witnessed the decline of the Delhi Sultanate empire that ruled the states of North India. The Lodi dynasty was the last of the Delhi sultanates.
  • The Lodi’s faced stiff opposition from the Afghan invaders who took them to their end. The rule of Lodi’s was culminated by Babur, who defeated the last Lodi ruler Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat in \(1526\) and established a new empire named the “Mughal Empire”.
MUGHAL EMPIRE: The Mughal empire was established by Babur, which reigned over India for \(181 years\), one of the longest-reigning Indian empires.
Xahiruddin Muhammad Babur: (\(1526\) – \(1530\) AD)
  • Babur was credited for the establishment of the Mughal empire in India. He had a strong lineage from both his father and his mother’s side. He was the great-grandson of Timur on his father’s side and also had the lineage of Genghis khan, the Mighty Mongolian ruler on his mother side.
BATTLE OF PANIPAT: The Battle was fought in the year 1526, where Babur emerged victoriously. He was also credited for using guns in this battle which gave him the upper hand against Ibrahim Lodi.
  • Babur was the ruler of a small territory named “Farghana”, who was chased away by the Uzbek rulers. Later he fought small battles to recapture his place and became the ruler of Kabul.
  • He arrived in India on the invite of Daulat Khan Lodi’s son to end the reign of Ibrahim Lodi, which he did successfully. Agra was the capital of the Mughal empire during his reign. He assumed the title of Padshah during a later period.
Battles fought by Babur:
During his short stay on the throne, Babur fought numerous battles to consolidate the empire during his tenure.  The battle that he fought is given below.
Battle of Khanwa: \(1527\)
This was a battle between Babur and Rana Sangha, the ruler of Western India, where Babur defeated Rana Sangha and took the title Ghazi.
Battle of Chanderi: \(1528\)
The Rajput ruler Medini Rai was up against Babur this time, who defeated the forces of Medini Rai and his allies in the battle. The dominance of Rajput’s came to an end after this battle.