Theory:

Land revenue system under Mughals:
The revenue accruing from the land was considered the most important source of revenue for the Mughal empire. Land revenue under King Akbar reached great heights as he separated the land into numerous divisions under the advice of his minister “Todar Mal”.
Todar Mal was an able minister who divided the land revenue system based on the fertility and productivity of the land. His method of land revenue was known as the Sabti or Bandobast system. This system was followed in North and North-Western provinces.
 
*FACT FILE: BANDOBAST SYSTEM: According to this system the average product and the average prices of crops for ten years were calculated and “one third” of the produce was given to the emperor.
 
Lands were separated into two divisions.
Polaj: Continuously cultivated land.
Parauti: Lands left fallow for a brief period.
 
The Jagirdari System:
The Predecessor of Mughal rulers was the Delhi Sultans who followed the practice of Iqta or land grant system to the officials. The Mughal rulers adopted the method from Delhi sultans and renamed it the Jagir system and the owner of the land were known as “Jagirdars”.
The Military officials of the Mughal empire who were earlier paid with cash were paid with Lands during the later stages. Such officials who got land as their payment became Jagirdars.
 
*FACT FILE: NAQDI: Military officials of the Mughal empire who received cash as their payment was known as “Naqdi”.
 
The Jagirdars appointed officials to collect the revenue from the land who came to be known as the Zamindars. Every Jagirdar was given the right to transfer the land to other Jagirdars to keep a check on the rights of Jagirdar over the land allotted to him.
 
The Mughal rulers also granted lands to religious leaders which were free of duty.
 
The Rise of Zamindars: 
The Zamindars who were appointed to collect the revenue of the lands slowly took over the control of land and exerted their dominance. Post the decline of the Mughal empire and the advent of the British the position of Zamindars were made hereditary
 
Army of the Mughals:
 
Battle scenes of the Mughal empire
 
The Mughal emperors maintained a huge army comprising Infantry, Cavalry, artillery and elephant forces. These armies were used in numerous battles that were waged during their period. The Mughal army was considered to be one of the most potent armies in Indian history.