The Age of Speculation
Humans are the only kind on earth intended with knowledge and understanding as well as explaining the world and universe. Humans became curious and have started to ask questions about nature, organisms and the world around them. Initially, they considered nature as God. Then they began to worship Sun, Moon and other Natural forces in their own understandings wherein few are not scientific. The lack of scientific knowledge on the creation of the world can be seen in ancient writings and religious Literature.
BC (BC) – Before Common Era
AD (CE) – Common Era
Scientific Foundations of Geology, Biology and Archaeology
The history writing, in the beginning can be traced to ancient Greeks. Herodotus (484 – 425 BC (BC)) is considered as the Father of History. The history which he inscribed was humanistic and rationalistic. The scientific study into the origin of humans was made possible by:
  • Eagerness in collecting archaeological remains and establishing museums
  • Ideas in developing Stratigraphy and geology;
  • ”Biological Evolution” a theory of Darwin;
  • Exploration of human animal fossils, stone tools, and artefact of early civilizations
  • Innovations and developments in translation techniques to convert early scripts.
Stratigraphy – The study that involves the origin, nature and study of rock and soil layers that were created due to natural and cultural activities.
Oldest Museums in the world:
  • The Ennigaldi-Nanna’s museum situated in Mesopotamia (Iraq) was established in 530 BC (BCE).
  • The Capitoline Museum in Italy is the oldest surviving museum (1471 AD (CE)).
  • The oldest University museum in the world is Ashmolean Museum at Oxford University which was created in 1677 AD (CE).
A significant amount of scientific understanding of human origins was contributed by Charles Darwin’s theory on concepts of “Natural Selection and survival of the fittest“ and Herbert Spencer’s “biological evolution”. Apart from the above theory Charles Darwin’s also written the following books:
  • “On the Origin of Species” in 1895
  • “The Descent of Man” in 1871.
Natural Selection – The process of organisms excellently regulated to the environment, for surviving and producing the offspring. 
Survival of the fittest – “survival of any life form that will leave the most copies of itself in successive generations.”
Fossil – Any life forms that turned into stone due to chemical and the physical process.
Stone Age – is the time when the stones are used to make their life easier in search for food.
Bronze Age – Bronze metal was discovered and used to create vessels and tools in this era (i.e. metals are extracted from the ores).
Iron Age – In this span of life, tools were made up of smelted iron.
The theory of human evolution is accepted widely, due to the advancement in science and technologies.